Genetics is now considered the most recognized field in the study of the causes of human disease and is considered a field rich in medical research. Pharmacogenomics is a product of research and care to personalize medicine for individuals by investing in DNA-based drug therapy [1,2]. Of all malignant neoplasms, 1% are mainly due to the inheritance of a single gene. Single, chromosomal and multifactorial genes were used to describe inherited conditions until the interaction between different genes (polygenic inheritance) was understood and the category of acquired somatic genetic disease was included. Approximately 5% of the population after the age of 25 will have a genetically based disorder .
Genetic impact on maxillofacial surgery: basic structure of DNA
DNA is a long polymer that forms a chain of a series of nucleotide molecules. Each nucleotide molecule has a deoxyribose sugar molecule, a phosphoric acid molecule, and a nitrogen base on the sugar side. There are four types of nucleotides in DNA that follow the types of nitrogenous bases: adenine (A), thymine (T), cytosine (C), and guanine (G). The DNA helix model was first suggested by Watson and Crick in which the two polynucleotide strands run side by side and in opposition. They are linked by nitrogen bases through hydrogen bonds with two types. The nitrogen base of the two linked groups of DNA pair in a constant arrangement in which adenine always binds thymine and cytosine always binds guanine. This will lead to stable hydrogen bonds between the pairs. The two DNA supports are a complementary turn around the double helix formation (Figure 1). A single turn of the helix is 3.4 nm long with 10 base pairs and the diameter of the helix is 2 mm .