In the last 25 years, DNA markers and associated molecular techniques have created new possibilities for genetic improvement, biodiversity conservation, imparting disease resistance in plants and animals, leading to better standard operating procedures for breeding. additional selective. The discovery of PCR had a great influence on genome analysis and contributed to the development and application of various DNA markers. The need of the moment is to conserve the genetic resources of animals and therefore the use of DNA marker technology has become popular among geneticists and animal breeders. In the last 15 years, advances in molecular marker techniques have played an important role in animal breeding strategies and have been incorporated into strain protection laws. Molecular markers are indispensable tools for determining genetic variation and biodiversity with high levels of precision and reproducibility. These markers are mainly classified into two types, the widely used mitochondrial DNA markers with decreasing order of conserved sequences and the most commonly used nuclear markers for DNA fingerprinting include random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD), fragment length polymorphism. amplified (AFLP) and microsatellites. This article describes molecular DNA markers such as SSR, SNP, RFLP, AFLP, microsatellites, and other technologies for their applications in functional genomics, strain improvement, and domestic animal husbandry regimen. We will compare these technologies to "next generation DNA sequencing" to critically examine futuristic breeding strategies and their promise and pitfalls.